(chem). An important raw material in the chemical industry. It is a by-product of the DESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION of wood. It can also be obtained by oxidizing ALCOHOL. The chemical make-up of acetic acid is CH3COOH.
(alc). YEAST that has been dried, but in which the yeast cells still can be activated.
F – levure seche active
S – levadura activa secada
ACTIVE SOLAR HEATING
(sol). Warming an interior space with heat collected mechanically through SOLAR COLLECTORS. The collection and distribution of this warm air requires additional external ENERGY to operate pumps, motors, valves, etc.
(constr) (sol). Sun-dried brick of clay and straw. Also the clay and soil used for making such bricks. Adobe is high in THERMAL MASS and is useful in low-cost building construction.
F – adobe
S – adobe
(chem). The process through which carbonaceous materials are able to compress and hold on their surfaces large quantities of gas. Also, the physical adhesion of molecules to the surfaces of solids without causing a chemical reaction.
(sol) (meas). The ratio of the amount of light reflected by a surface to the light falling onto it.
F – albedo
S – albedo
(chem). A class of compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which occurs widely in nature and is used in solvents, antifreezes, chemical manufacture, and as a fuel. Alcohol commonly is obtained by FERMENTATION. (See also: BUTYL ALCOHOL, ETHYL ALCOHOL, and METHYL ALCOHOL)
(bio) (biocon) (gen). Fresh and saltwater aquatic plants, usually microscopic in size, but including seaweed. They are valuable in waste treatment, as a protein source for humans, as animal feed, and as a FEEDSTOCK for BIOGAS DIGESTERS.
F – algues
S – algas
(chem) (biocon). Any of various BASES, which neutralize ACIDS to form SALTS. Bases are important in maintaining the chemical balance in a BIOGAS DIGESTER.
F – alcali
S – alcali
(elec). A BATTERY that uses sodium or potassium hydroxide as an electrolyte, and nickel-oxide flakes and powdered iron or nickel-cadmium for its active plates.
F – accumulateur alcalin
S – pila alcalina
(chem). A general name for hydrocarbons of the METHANE series.
F – paraffine
S – alcano
(elec). An electric current that periodically reverses its direction. Generally abbreviated as ac.
F – courant alternatif
S – courriente continua
ALTERNATIVE COMBUSTION ENGINES
(auto). Alternatives to the spark ignition and the diesel combustion engines. Among the more developed designs are the GAS TURBINE and STIRLING ENGINES.
F – substituts aux moteurs a combustion
S – motores de combustion alterna
ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES
(gen). Sources of ENERGY different from those generally employed by a user. The term usually refers to RENEWABLE ENERGY sources such as SOLAR ENERGY, WIND ENERGY, GEOTHERMAL POWER, HYDROPOWER, etc. The use of alternative energy sources is attractive because of the  high price and limited availability of petroleum-based fuels;  the pollution that is associated with the burning of FOSSIL FUELS; and  the expense and dangers of nuclear power.
(alc) (biocon). Free from moisture. The term applies to oxides, SALTS, and other substances that do not contain water.
F – anhydre
S – anhidro
(alc). ALCOHOL that is almost completely free from water. Alcohol must be ANHYDROUS to be mixed with gasoline to form GASAHOL. Alcohol and water cannot be separated beyond 199.99 PROOF. At that CONCENTRATION, they form an AZEOTROPE and vaporize at the same temperature.
(biocon). BIOMASS grown in fresh or saltwater, including ALGAE, seaweed, etc.
F – biomasse aquatique
S – biomasa acuatica
(hydr). A CHANNEL or trough built to convey water For irrigation, to operate a HYDROPOWER plant, or for household use. The water in aqueducts generally flows by means of gravity, although pumps may also be used.
F – aqueduc
S – acueducto
(hydr). Any geological formation containing water, especially one that supplies the water for wells, springs, etc.
F – aquifere
S – acuifera
(wind) (arc). A WINDMILL constructed to provide maximum EFFICIENCY in winds of various speeds and from different directions.
(elec) (wind). An electrical GENERATOR that produces ALTERNATING CURRENT, matching an existing POWER source so the two sources can be combined to power one LOAD. These generators are often used with WINDMILLS to provide power to buildings that already receive power from an electric utility.
F – generateur asynchrone
S – generador asincronico
(gen). The pressure exerted by the Earth’s atmosphere at any given point, generally measured on a scale based on the pressure of air at sea level.
F – pression atmospherique
S – presion atmosferica
(sol). An unroofed, partially roofed, or fully roofed courtyard or room in a dwelling, which allows sunlight to reach adjoining rooms. It is often used for PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING.
(impl) (alc). A rotating, screw-type device that moves material through a tube. In ALCOHOL production, it is used to transfer grains from storage to the grinding site, and from the grinding site to the COOKER.
F – vrille d’alimentation
S – barrena
(impl). A device that automatically maintains the FLOW of hot or cold air into a room.
F – registre automatique
S – regulador de tiro automatico
(sol). The use of a device that allows SOLAR COLLECTORS to “track” or follow the sun during the day without manual adjustment.
(gen) (meas). That part of the total ENERGY produced by a system that can be applied usefully. EFFICIENCY is a measure oF available energy.
F – energie disponible
S – energia disponible
AVERAGE WIND SPEED
(wind) (meas). The most common WIND VELOCITY over a specified period of time.
F – vitesse moyenne du vent
S – velocidad promedio del viento
(gen). An imaginary line passing through the center of a body, about which the body rotates. (Plural: axes)
F – axe de rotation
S – axis
(gen). A supporting member that carries a wheel. It either rotates with the wheel to transmit mechanical POWER, or allows the wheel to rotate freely on it.
F – essieu
S – eje
(chem) (alc). The chemical term for two liquids that, at a certain CONCENTRATION, boil at the same temperature. For example, ETHANOL and water cannot be separated further than 199.9 PROOF because at this concentration they form an azeotrope and vaporize together.
(biocon). A law stating that the VAPOR PRESSURE of a liquid is lowered when a non-VOLATILE substance is dissolved in it. The pressure is lowered by an amount proportional to the CONCENTRATION of the solution.
F – loi de von Babo
S – ley de Babo
(gen). The emission of smoke through cooking holes or other openings in a wood-burning or CHARCOAL stove. It occurs when poor DRAFT in the CHIMNEY causes air to pass back down into the stove.
F – retour de fumee
S – contracorriente de humo
(wind) (arc). Support bars across the back of the SAILS of a WINDMILL.
(bio). Any of numerous single-celled micro-organisms occurring in a wide variety of forms, existing either as free-living organisms or as parasites, having a wide range of biochemical properties. Bacteria are necessary for DIGESTION and FERMENTATION. (Singular: bacterium)
F – bacteries
S – bacteria
(biocon). The chemical breakdown of ORGANIC MATTER by micro-organisms.
F – decomposition bacterienne
S – descomposicion bacteriana
(gen). A metal plate or other artificial obstruction used to check or deflect the FLOW of FLUIDS.
F – deflecteur
S – desviador
(biocon). The fibrous residue remaining after the extraction of the juice from sugar cane. It may be used as a fuel.
(biocon). A process of BIOGAS production in which the material to be digested is loaded into the DIGESTER at the start of the process. A SEED may also be added at this time. The digester is then sealed and the contents left to FERMENT. At completion, the digested SLUDGE is removed and the tank reloaded. Daily gas production varies during the process. It is slow at the start, increases, and finally declines toward the end of the DIGESTION cycle.
F – digestion a charge initiale
S – digestion por tandas
(alc). A batch DISTILLATION process of ALCOHOL production in which the material to be distilled is loaded into a STILL at the start of the process. The entire volume is heated and left to distill. At completion, the distilled MASH is removed and the still reloaded. Daily alcohol production varies during the process. It is slow at the start, increases, and finally declines toward the end of the distillation cycle.
(elec). A group of two or more CELLS or ACCUMULATORS electrically connected in series or parallel. Batteries are used to store electrical ENERGY.
F – batterie
S – bateria
(wind) (impl). An automatic switch that disconnects a BATTERY during its charge if the voltage of the wind charger falls below or rises above that of the battery, within certain limits. A battery cut-out is a battery protection device.
F – coupe-circuit de batterie
S – interruptor de bateria
(gen). A machine part that supports and guides a shaft, pivot, or wheel that slides, rotates, or oscillates in or on it.
(chem) (gen). The conversion of ORGANIC WASTE into ENERGY PRODUCTS through the action of micro-organisms. Chemically, this is the reduction of complex organic compounds into simpler, more stable forms.
(biocon) (meas). The amount of BIOMASS that can be produced in a given areA. It usually is expressed in weight units per area measurement per unit of time.
F – production de biomasse
S – produccion de biomasa
(biocon (meas). A pollution-control method in which living organisms are used to test the EFFLUENT from a DIGESTER to determine whether it is safe to discharge the effluent into a body of water. It may also be used to test the quality of waters downstream from a digester discharge point.
F – controle biologique
S – biocontrol
(fos). Any naturally-occurring hydrocarbon, especially solid hydrocarbons such as asphalt, wax, pitch, and Gilsonite.
F – bitume
S – bitumen
(sol). A surface that completely absorbs all SOLAR RADIATION that strikes it.
(gen). A process by which two pieces of metal are joined using a nonferrous alloy with a lower melting point than either of the two metals being joined.
F – brasage
S – soldadura con laton
(wind) (arc). The main lateral beam below the WIND SHAFT.
F – poutrelle maitresse
S – viga de costado
(hydr). A sophisticated type of WATER WHEEL into which water enters below the top of the wheel and is kept in the BUCKETS until being discharged at or near the lowest point on the wheel. Breast wheels generally operate best with HEADS amounting to less than the diameter of the wheel. High breast wheels (where the water enters above the center shaft) can approach 65 percent ENERGY CONVERSION EFFICIENCY. (Syn: breast-shot wheel)
F – roue de poitrine
S – rueda de costado
(wind). In general, any light to moderate wind. (See also: BEAUFORT SCALE)
(fos). A type of fuel that has been finely ground and compressed in pressure molds. It is usually made from low-grade coal, coke, CHARCOAL, or BIOMASS, and is mixed with a binder such as STARCH, tar, cement, pitch, or asphalt.
F – briquette
S – briqueta
BRITISH THERMAL UNIT
(heat) (meas). The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree FAHRENHEIT under stated conditions of temperature and pressure. It is a standard unit for measuring quantity of HEAT ENERGY. Generally abbreviated as BTU.
F – British thermal unit
S – unidad termica britanica
(alc). A perforated cap on the plates of a DISTILLATION COLUMN, used to ensure that the vapor and condensed liquid mix thoroughly.
F – cloche de barbotage
S – casquete de burbujeo
(biocon). A safety device attached to a BIOGAS DIGESTER to ensure that the gas is free of air, since an air and gas mixture would be explosive. The gas is “bubbled” through a container of water before being used or stored. If LIMEWATER is used instead of water, the bubble chamber can also be used to SCRUB the gas. In addition, the bubble chamber serves as a SPARK ARRESTER.
(hydr). A chain loop with BUCKETS attached to it at regular intervals. The chain runs over sprocket wheels. As each bucket passes by a water source, water fills the bucket, providing POWER and propelling the chain further along.
F – noria a godets
S – transportador de cangilones
(biocon) (chem). The capacity of a solution to resist pH (POTENTIAL HYDROGEN) changes when small amounts of ACID or ALKALI are added. In the case of DIGESTED SLUDGE, the ammonium and bicarbonate ions are mainly responsible for buffering.
(meas). The international temperature scale in which water freezes at 0 [degrees] and boils at 100 [degrees]. To convert from degrees Celsius to degrees FAHRENHEIT, multiply the temperature in degrees Celsius by 9/5 (or 1.8) and add 32. To convert from degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius, subtract 32 from the Fahrenheit temperature and then multiply by 5/9. Abbreviated as C. (Syn: centigrade)
(gen). The inertial force repelling a body away from the center of the curvature of a curved path along which it is moving, or away from the AXIS around which it rotates. The opposite of CENTRIPETAL FORCE.
F – force centrifuge
S – centrifuga, fuerza
(gen). A force attracting a body toward the center of the curvature of a curved path along which it is moving, or toward the AXIS around which it rotates. The apposite of CENTRIFUGAL FORCE.
F – force centripete
S – centripeta , fuerza
(constr). A method of making ADOBE bricks in which chalk is added to the clay, straw, and water. Chalk adobe is useful as a THERMAL MASS.
F – adobe a la chaux
S – mezcla de adobe y creta
(hydr). The bed of a stream or waterway. (See also: CANAL)
F – chenal 
S – cauce
(fos) (gen). A dark-colored or black porous form of CARBON made from vegetable or animal substances. Charcoal commonly is made by charring wood in a KILN or RETORT from which air is partially excluded. It is used for FUEL, and in various mechanical, artistic, and chemical processes. By using DISTILLATION and retorts to produce charcoal, several valuable products can be collected that would otherwise be lost, including COMBUSTIBLE GASES, CREOSOTE OIL, METHANOL, soluble tar, and combustible pitch.
(sol). A vertical window that is placed high in a wall near the eaves for light, HEAT GAIN, and ventilation.
F – lanterneau
S – claraboya
(sol). A SOLAR HEATING system in which distilled water, antifreeze, and/or corrosion inhibitors are circulated through the COLLECTORS and storage tanks in a closed loop. Heat picked up from the collectors by the circulating FLUIDS is transferred to the water in the storage tanks through the closed loop or other HEAT EXCHANGERS.
(prod). The combustion of coal to form a gas suitable for use as a fuel. This is usually done in a PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR.
F – gazeification du charbon
S – gasificacion del carbon
(constr). A type of ADOBE in which corn cobs are added to clay, water, and straw. Adobe bricks are reinforced by this addition of cobs during the brick-making process. Cob adobe is a useful THERMAL MASS.
(sol). A device to trap SOLAR RADIATION and convert it into usable heat. The term collector frequently refers to an insulated frame containing a panel made from an ABSORBER PLATE and GLAZING. More broadly, a well-designed building with windows facing the equator may also be considered a collector, as can other solar devices that capture SOLAR RADIATION in the form of heat.
(sol). A series of lenses or mirrors used to concentrate SOLAR RADIATION onto PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS, which convert the sunlight into electricity. The concentrated sunlight increases the output of each cell, thus reducing the total number of cells required to produce a given amount of electricity. (See also: PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY)
(biocon). The continuous feeding of BIOMASS into a BIOGAS DIGESTER, with the removal of an equivalent volume of EFFLUENT. The process is usually started with the addition of a SEED. It may take several DETENTION TIMES before the process becomes steady. For many purposes, this is a more EFFICIENT and convenient process than BATCH DIGESTION. Processes involving daily addition and removal are more properly described as semi-continuous.
(constr) (sol). An empty area within the walls of a building in which the air remains motionless and acts as insulation. Dead air space may be included in a SOLAR COLLECTOR between the ABSORBER PLATE and the GLAZING, between glazings, and in the CASING.
(wind). A log or a mass of concrete or steel buried in the ground, to which GUY WIRES for supporting towers and poles are attached.
F – point fixe d’ammarage
S – macizo de anclaje
(bio) (chem). Decay of ORGANIC MATTER due to the action of BACTERIA. Also the separation of a substance into its component parts by chemical action.
F – decomposition
S – descomposicion
DEEP CYCLE BATTERY
(elec) (wind). A BATTERY that can be fully charged and discharged without shortening its life. They are often used with WIND GENERATORS.
F – batterie a cycle profond
S – bateria de gran ciclo
DEGREE DAY COOLING
(gen) (meas). A measurement used to evaluate the summer cooling requirements of a given location. Each degree that the daily temperature is above 75 [degrees] F (24 [degrees] C), one cooling degree day is counted.
F – degre-jour de refroidissement
S – enfriamiento de grado-dia
DEGREE DAY HEATING
(gen) (meas). A measurement used to determine the winter heating requirements of a given location. Each degree that the daily temperature is below 65 [degrees] F (19 [degrees] C) is a heating degree day.
F – degre-jour de chauffage
S – calefaccion de grado-dia
(gen). The removal of moisture from a substance.
F – deshydratation
S – deshidratacion
(alc). The process of adding a substance, often METHANOL, to ETHANOL to make it unfit for human consumption.
(alc). A by-product of ETHANOL production. Once ethanol has been driven from the MASH in an ALCOHOL STILL, the remaining solids are known as distiller’s grain. When dried, these grains can be used as high protein animal feed. The dried distiller’s grain commonly is abbreviated as DDG. (Syn: BREWER‘S DRIED GRAIN)
(biocon). DIGESTION in which more than 10 percent of the SLURRY is solid material.
F – digestion seche
S – digestion seca
(biocon). An area prepared for drying EFFLUENT after it hs been removed from a METHANE DIGESTER. Dried effluent can be used as fertilizer or as animal feed.
F – lit de sechage
S – lecho secador
DRY ORGANIC WASTE
(gen). ORGANIC WASTE that is free from moisture. This type of waste can be stored for long periods before being used as a fuel or fertilizer. (See also: DRY BIOMASS)
F – dechets organiques secs
S – desperdicios organicos secos
(biocon). SLURRY that is more than 10 percent solid material.
F – boue seche
S – fango seco
(geo). An ENERGY source obtained when hot water boils in an underground reservoir. As the steam rises, some of it condenses on surrounding rack. The uncondensed steam that reaches the surface is called dry steam, and may be tapped and used in STEAM TURBINES.
F – vapeur seche
S – vapor seco
(auto) (gen). A gasoline or diesel engine equipped to operate on an alternative fuel, either alternately or in combination (e.g., gasoline-BIOGAS, diesel-biogas, gasoline-WOOD GAS, diesel-wood gas).
F – moteur polycarburant
S – motor a doble combustible
(bio). Manure, usually without urine. Dried dung can be burned directly as a fuel or used as a fertilizer.
(heat). A relatively inefficient KILN made by mounding earth over the materials to be burned. Used in traditional CHARCOAL production.
F – meule a charbon de bois
S – horno de tierra
(gen). A wheel in which the axle is not at the center point, but slightly off-center.
F – roue excentrique
S – rueda excentrica
(heat). A HEAT EXCHANGER that recovers heat from FLUE gases and uses it to heat feedwater or combustion air.
F – economiseur
S – economizador
(heat) (meas). The ratio of actual heat transfer in a HEAT EXCHANGER to the maximum possible heat transfer.
F – efficacite
S – eficacia
(gen). The ratio of the ENERGY output to the energy input. Efficiency is usually expressed as a percentage.
F – rendement
S – eficiencia
(biocon).  SLURRY that has been removed from a BIOGAS PLANT.  Liquid sewage after having passed through any stage in its purification.
F – effluent
S – efluente
(sol). The ratio of RADIANT ENERGY emitted by a body to that emitted by a perfect BLACKBODY. A perfect blackbody has an emissivity of one; a perfect REFLECTOR, an emissivity of zero.
F – emissivite
S – emisividad
(sol) (meas). A rating of the ability of a material to give off heat as RADIANT ENERGY.
F – emittance
S – emitancia
(gen). The capacity of a body to do work; POWER in action.
F – energie
S – energia
ENERGY CAPABILITY OF AN ELECTRICITY-PRODUCING DEVICE
(gen) (meas). The maximum amount of electricity that an electricity-producing device may produce under the best conditions during a given period. ENERGY capability is determined by the mechanical EFFICIENCY of the device.
F – capacite energetique d’un dispositif produisant du courant
S – capacidad energetica de un aparato productor de electricidad
(gen). Practices and measures that increase the EFFICIENCY with which ENERGY is used or produced.
F – conservation de l’energie
S – conservacion de energia
(gen). The amount of ENERGY consumed in the form in which it is obtained by the user. This term excludes electrical generation and distribution losses. It also is called net energy consumption.
F – consommation d’energie
S – consumo de energia
(gen). The act of changing ENERGY from one form to another (e.g., WIND ENERGY to mechanical energy).
Mechanical -> Electrical
Wind Generator 40%
Water Turbine 68-93%
Steam Power Plant 40%
Mechanical -> Mechanical
Solar -> Thermal
Flat Collector 40-60%
Chemical -> Thermal
Wood Combustion Burner 85% maximum
Chemical -> Electrical
Chemical -> Chemical
Biogas Digester 40-60%
F – conversion de l’energie
S – conversion de energia
ENERGY PATTERN FACTOR
(wind). The ratio of the available ENERGY in all of the winds in a particular location over a certain period of time to the energy that would be available if the WIND SPEED over that period of time were constant at the mean wind speed over that period of time.
F – coefficient de diagramme energetique
S – factor energetico del viento
(gen). Fuels that can be used to generate ENERGY. Also, the by-products that result when fuels are produced.
F – combustibles energetiques
S – productos energeticos
(gen) (meas). The ability to convert ENERGY into other forms, such as heat or a chemical reaction, so that it can be retrieved for later use. Also the development, design, construction, and operation of devices for storing energy until needed. The technology includes devices such as batteries, pumped storage for hydroelectric generation and compressed gas.
(alc). The use of ENZYMES to convert STARCH into simple sugars. This is a stage in the production of ETHANOL.
F – saccharification enzymatique
S – hidrolisis enzimica
(chem) (alc). Organic substances that are produced in the cells of living organisms, and which cause specific chemical changes. Enzymes are produced by BACTERIA or FUNGI and are used in the liquefication and SACCHARIFICATION steps of ALCOHOL production.
F – enzymes
S – enzimas
(wind). Of, relating to, formed by, or deposited by the wind or air currents. (Syn: Aeolian)
F – eolien, eolienne
S – eolico
(sol). Either of two times of year when the sun passes over the celestial equator and when the length of day and night are almost equal.
(refrig). The exchange of heat from air to a water spray or wet surface through a reversible THERMODYNAMIC process. Air passing through the water is cooled as the water evaporates. The process can be reversed by condensing the vapor on a cool surface.
F – refroidissement par evaporation
S – enfriamiento evaporante
(heat). Air that passes through a COMBUSTION ZONE in excess of the quantity theoretically required for complete combustion.
F – exces d’air
S – aire excesivo
EXTRATERRESTRIAL SOLAR RADIATION
(sol) (meas). The amount of SOLAR RADIATION that would strike a surface if that surface were outside the Earth’s atmosphere. (See also: CLEARNESS INDEX)
(meas). The temperature scale in which water freezes at 32 oF and boils at 212 oF. Temperatures of the Fahrenheit scale can be converted to equivalent temperatures on the CELSIUS or Centigrade scale by first subtracting 32 degrees from the Fahrenheit temperature, then multiplying the result by 5/9 according to the formula: .
F – Fahrenheit
S – Fahrenheit
(wind). A strong, cold, downhill wind.
F – vent catabatique
S – racha de viento
(wind) (arc). A small, secondary ROTOR set at a right angle to the main ROTOR of a WINDMILL to provide the motive POWER to turn the CAP to face the wind.
F – gouvernail
S – timon
(wind). A multi-BLADED WINDMILL that is based on an Early American design and is used primarily for water pumping.
(alc) (chem).  A biological sequence of ENZYMATIC reactions that convert sugars to carbon dioxide and ALCOHOL in the absence of FREE OXYGEN. The term generally refers to metabolism in the absence of oxygen.  The process by which YEAST changes sugar to ALCOHOL in the absence of air.  The process of chemical change in ORGANIC MATTER brought about by living organisms.
F – fermentation
S – fermentacion
(gen) (meas). The length of time required for a substance to FERMENT.
(constr). A type of brick with a high melting point that is used to line FLUES, CHIMNEYS, furnaces, and fireplaces.
F – brique refractaire
S – ladrillo refractario
(biocon). A BIOGAS DIGESTER in which the gasholder is an integral part of the digester, rather than a FLOATING GAS CAP. This type of digester is usually used to produce fertilizer. METHANE is considered a by-product.
F – digesteur a dome fixe
S – digestor de sombrerete fijo
FLAT BLACK PAINT
(sol). A nonglossy black paint with a relatively high ABSORPTANCE.
(gen). The volume of a substance passing a point per unit time (e.g., meters per second, gallons per hour, etc.)
F – debit
S – flujo
(hydr) (meas). The FLOW rate at which a TURBINE is designed to operate.
F – debit nominal
S – diseno de flujo
(const). A passageway in a CHIMNEY that vents gases produced during combustion. The flue opening can be regulated to control the DRAFT in the oven or stove, thus changing the rate of combustion.
F – carneau
S – conducto de humos
FLUE GAS DRYING
(heat). THERMAL drying using gases in a FLUE as the source of heat.
F – sechage au gaz de carneau
S – secado por gases del conducto
(gen). Any substance that FLOWS, such as a liquid or gas. Fluids differ from solids in that they cannot resist changes in their shape when acted upon by a force.
F – fluide
S – fluido
FLUIDIZED BED GASSIFIER
(prod). A type of PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR in which air FLOWS upward through a bed of suitably-sized fuel particles fast enough to buoy the particles and give them an appearance of great agitation. The fuel particles generally are small. This type of combustion reduces the sulphur-dioxide emissions when coal is burned.
F – gazogene a lit fluidise
S – gasificador en lecho fluidizado
(hydr).  A HEAD RACE in the form of a trough or CHANNEL that carries water to a WATER WHEEL.  A waterway, usually made of wood and often supported on a trestle, that conveys water to be used for POWER, transportation, etc.
F –  coursier;  canal d’amenee
S – canaleta
(gen) (impl). A rotating element attached to the shaft of a machine to maintain uniform angular velocity and revolutions per minute.
F – volant
S – volante
(sol). A type of SOLAR COLLECTOR that focuses the sun’s rays on a sinqle point.
F – capteur a concentration 
S – colector enfocante
(sol). A portable type of folding mirror used in SOLAR COOKERS to reflect sunlight.
F – reflecteur pliant
S – reflector plegable
(gen) (meas). The amount of ENERGY required to lift one pound of a substance one foot.
F – pied-livre
S – libra-pie
(heat). The use of a pump or blower to control the FLOW of heat into a heated FLUID (e.g. circulating warm air in a room or dwelling with a pump or blower).
F – convection forcee
S – conveccion forzada
(fos). Nonrenewable, naturally-occurring fuels from ORGANIC MATTER. These include coal, crude oil, and natural gas.
F – combustibles fossiles
S – combustibles fosiles
(alc). A vertical tube or column attached to an ALCOHOL STILL that is usually filled with packing or intersected with plates. An internal REFLUX results in a separation between the high and low boiling fractions inside the column. Those with the lowest boiling point DISTILL out. (See also: DISTILLATION COLUMN)
F – colonne de fractionnement
S – columna de fraccionar
(hydr). A WATER TURBINE that operates on a low or medium HEAD and is often installed in large HYDROELECTRIC plants. Water enters the turbine radially and leaves axially.
F – turbine de Francis
S – turbina Francis
(bio). Oxygen in the atmosphere, which can be extracted at no cost. Conversely, oxygen extracted at a cost would cause the substance from which the oxygen molecules were taken to DECOMPOSE.
(sol). A type of lens built up from a number of narrow concentric segments. It is used in SOLAR CONCENTRATORS.
F – lentille de Fresnel
S – lente de Fresnel
(gen). Surface resistance to relative motion, which slows down movement and causes heat.
F – frottement
S – friccion
(hydr). HEAD or ENERGY lost due to FRICTION created by the contact between a moving stream of water and the conduit through which it is moving. In pipes, the friction head is also caused by bends in the pipelines, changes in the pipe diameter, valves, and couplings.
(heat) (meas). The ratio of heat produced by a fuel for doing work to the available heat of the fuel. Fuel EFFICIENCY is determined by the nonheat-forming materials in the fuel and the nonwork-producing heat that is developed by the fuel.
F – rendement du combustible
S – eficiencia del combustible
(heat). Any type of wood that can be used to fuel a fire.
(biocon). The second stage of BIOGAS generation, during which METHANE ([CH.sub.4]) is produced.
F – digestion de gaz
S – digestion de gas
(biocon). (1) A container for holding the BIOGAS produced in a DIGESTER. The size of the holder depends on the rates of gas production and gas use. (See also: FLOATING GAS CAP)
F – gazometre
S – gasometro
(prod). The conversion of wood or coal to COMBUSTIBLE GAS without leaving a combustible residue.
F – gazeification
S – gasificacion
(prod). A special type of furnace in which the air supply to the COMBUSTION ZONE is carefully metered. This promotes the production of COMBUSTIBLE GASES as wood or coal are burned.
F – gazogene
S – gasificador
GAS PRODUCTION RATE
(biocon) (meas). The quantity of METHANE generated per unit of time. It generally is expressed as cubic feet/day or cubic meters/day. The figure should be quoted under standard conditions of temperature and pressure.
(geo). Natural steam or hot water spouts in active GEOTHERMAL regions.
F – geyser
S – geiser
(wind). A long board or pipe used to improve the leverage in lifting a TOWER for a WINDMILL.
F – fleche de levage
S – mastil grua
(impl) (sol). A transparent sheet that admits sunlight to a SOLAR COLLECTOR and then inhibits the escape of heat. Commonly used glazing materials include ACETATE, acrylic, fiber-reinforced plastics, and glass.
(gen) (impl). A device that regulates the speed of an engine or other device under varying conditions of load and pressure. Also a device for regulating the FLOW or pressure of a FLUID passing through a device.
(ani). The gear or tackle, other than a YOKE, used on draft animals to pull a vehicle or drive an implement. It differs from a yoke, which joins together draft animals.
F – harnais
S – arnes
(hydr) (meas).  The vertical distance from the point where water enters an intake to the point where the water leaves a HYDROPOWER device. It is generally measured in feet or meters. The product of the head times the FLOW is a measurement of potential POWER.  The vertical distance a liquid must be pumped from its source to its point of use or storage.
F – chute d’eau -
S – altura
(sol). The pipe that runs across the top of an ABSORBER PLATE to gather or distribute HEAT TRANSFER FLUID from or to the grid pipes that run across the absorber surface. Some headers run along the bottom of the absorber plate.
(heat) (impl). A device, such as a coiled copper tube immersed in a tank of water which is used to transfer heat from one FLUID to another through a separating wall. A CONDENSER is one type of heat exchanger.
F – echangeur de chaleur
S – termopermutador
(heat). The increase of heat in a space resulting from DIRECT RADIATION and from the heat given off by such other sources as THERMAL MASS, a stove, a fireplace, humans, or animals.
F – apport de chaleur
S – ganancia calorifica
(heat) (meas). The amount of heat produced by the complete combustion of a specific amount of fuel. This is a measure of FUEL EFFICIENCY.
F – pouvoir calorifique
S – valor calorifico
(heat). An unwanted decrease in the amount of heat contained in a space. Heat is usually lost through CONVECTION.
F – perte de chaleur
S – perdida calorifica
(heat) (impl). A mechanical device that transfers heat from a heat source to a HEAT SINK. This process causes the source to cool and the sink to become warmer.
F – pompe a chaleur
S – bomba calorifica
HEAT RATE TRANSFER COEFFICIENT
(heat) (meas). The rate at which heat is transferred per hour, per unit surface, per degree of temperature difference.
F – coefficient de transmission de chaleur
S – coeficiente de transferencia del consumo calorifico
(sol) (impl). A solar-focusing instrument consisting of a mirror mounted on an AXIS that is moved by clockwork. The heliostat reflects sunbeams in one direction, usually to a central ABSORBER located in a TOWER.
F – heliostat
S – heliostato
(sol).  A process that uses SOLAR RADIATION to produce heat.  A device that absorbs RADIATION on a blackened surface and converts it into heat.
F – heliothermique
S – heliotermico
(sol). A process by which SOLAR ENERGY is used to provide THERMAL ENERGY for space heating, space cooling, and domestic water heating.
F – processus heliothermique
S – proceso heliotermico
(sol) (meas). An instrument that measures heat from the sun.
F – heliothermometre
S – heliotermometro
(sol) (impl). Turning toward light. It describes devices that TRACK the sun, following its movement across the sky.
(geo) A system for using GEOTHERMAL POWER. A hole is drilled and the deep rock cracked. This may be done hydraulically, as is done in conventional oil fields, or with explosives. Water is injected into the fractured rock, allowed to heat, and then withdrawn as steam for use as an ENERGY source.
(sol) (meas). The angular displacement of the sun east or west of the local meridian due to the rotation of the Earth on its AXIS at 15 [degrees] per hour (morning [+] afternoon [-]).
F – angle horaire
S – angulo hora
(wind). A piece of pipe that sticks out from the front of the hub of a ROTOR on a WINDMILL. It provides a place to attach GUY WIRES to strengthen the BLADES or SAILS.
F – rallonge de moyeu
S – extension del cubo
(gen). A mechanical means for increasing the relative humidity in an enclosed area by injecting water vapor into the air.
F – humidificateur
S – humidificador
(biocon). Well-decomposed organic soil material consisting of the residues from plant and animal matter together with the cell substances of soil organisms and various inorganic materials.
F – humus
S – humus
(biocon). A two-stage BIOGAS DIGESTER design consisting of a larger batch-fed, ACID-producing, cold phase, and a smaller CONTINUOUS-FEED, METHANE-producing, heated phase. Alternatively, any digester that separates acid and methane production.
F – generateur hybride
S – generador hibrido
HYBRID POWER SYSTEM
(gen). A system, such as one might find within a home, that derives its heating, lighting, and other ENERGY from several interconnected sources. One or more of these sources generally would come from RENEWABLE ENERGY.
(chem). A solid material resulting from the combination under pressure of a gas with water.
F – hydrate
S – hidrato
(hydr) (impl). A water pump that uses the ENERGY of descending water to raise a part of the water to a height greater than that of the source. It requires no other power than the energy from the descending water.
(hydr). Relative to a system in which the potential ENERGY of falling water is harnessed by releasing it from DAMS or through a PENSTOCK downward through WATER TURBINES.
F – hydro-electrique
S – hidroelectrico
(hydr). The cycle in which water passes through different states. It begins as atmospheric water vapor. It then becomes a liquid through precipitation. Next it flows along the ground surface, where it is useful as an energy source. Finally, it returns to its original form through evaporation and transpiration.
F – cycle hydrologique
S – ciclo hidrologico
(hydr). The science of water systems on or beneath the Earth’s surface.
F – hydrologie
S – hidrologia
(alc) (chem). The chemical process that breaks complex organic molecules into simple molecules. For example, STARCH and CELLULOSE can be hydrolyzed by ACIDS or ENZYMES to produce simple sugars, which can be FERMENTED to form ETHANOL.
(hydr). POWER produced by falling water. The term is used to identify a type of electricity-generating station or any energy output in which the main mover is driven by FLOWing water.
F – puissance hydraulique
S – potencia hidraulica
(hydr). A system in which the potential ENERGY of FLOWing water is used to create electricity or to mechanically drive machines, by impounding it behind DAMS and then diverting it through a CHANNEL to a WATER TURBINE.
F – systeme de puissance hydraulique
S – sistema de potencia hidraulica
(biocon). A monovalent group consisting of a hydrogen atom and an oxygen atom linked together. Most BASES contain hydroxyl groups. (See also: BASE)
F – hydroxyle
S – hidroxilo
(impl) (meas) (sol). A device for measuring the humidity of the air. It is used in designing SOLAR HEATING and SOLAR COOLING systems.
(geo). Rock systems in GEOTHERMAL regions where the heat is contained almost entirely in impermeable rock.
F – roche seche impermeable
S – roca seca impermeable
(hydr). A TURBINE driven by high velocity JETS of water or steam that are produced by forcing the water or steam through a nozzle.
F – turbine a action
S – turbina de impulsion
(sol) (hydr).  The angle between the sun’s rays and a line perpendicular (normal) to the irradiated surface. The incident angle determines both the intensity of the DIRECT RADIATION component striking the surface and the ability of the surface to reflect, transmit, or ABSORB the sun’s rays.  In the case of HYDROPOWER devices, the angle between the water intake and a line perpendicular to the BUCKETS.
F – angle d’incidence
S – angulo incidente
(sol) (meas). The quantity of RADIANT ENERGY striking a surface per unit time and unit area.
(heat). The unchecked movement of outdoor air into a building through cracks around windows and doors or in walls, roofs, and floors. Infiltration generally refers to cold air during the winter and hot air during the summer.
(biocon). A sample of partially DIGESTED SLURRY, and its associated BACTERIA, that is added at the start of DIGESTION to a BIOGAS DIGESTER. It provides sufficient micro-organisms for the digestion process to proceed at a satisfactory rate. Without this seeding, there generally is a prolonged wait before a digester begins producing gas. (Syn: seed)
F – inoculum
S – inoculum
(sol). The rate at which ENERGY from the sun reaches the Earth’s surface. Insolation generally is measured in BTU/square feet (meters)/day.
F – insolation
S – insolacion
INSULATED STEAM COOKER
(sol). A small, insulated cooking box in which steam acts as the heating agent. Water heated to steam by a SOLAR COLLECTOR flows into the box, condenses, and drips back into the COLLECTOR.
(biocon). A system in which the outputs of one activity are used as inputs in other related activities. For example, a BIOGAS system in which the EFFLUENT is used as a nutrient to enrich an aquaculture environment. In exchange, BIOMASS from the aquaculture may be used as INFLUENT to the DIGESTER.
(meas). A unit of ENERGY or work equal to one WATT per second or 0.737 foot pounds.
(gen) (heat). The law stating that:  The rate at which heat is produced by a steady current in any part of an electric circuit is jointly proportional to the resistance and to the square of the current.  The internal ENERGY of an ideal gas depends only on its temperature regardless of volume and pressure.
F – loi de Joule
S – ley de Joule
(elec). A length of wire, usually with clips on each end, for making temporary electrical connections.
(hydr). A propeller-type of WATER TURBINE with variable pitch BLADES that adjust automatically in accordance with the HEAD.
F – turbine de Kaplan
S – turbina Kaplan
(biocon). An annual East Indian plant, which may be used effectively in BIOGAS production.
F – kenaf
S – hibiscus cannabinus
(heat). A high temperature oven, furnace, or heated enclosure used to process a substance by burning, firing, or drying. Kilns often are described by the direction that air passes through them (i.e., UPDRAFT or DOWNDRAFT).
F – four
S – horno
(elec). A unit of POWER equal to 1,000 WATTS or to ENERGY consumption at a rate of 1,000 JOULES per second. It is usually used as a measure of electrical energy. Commonly abbreviated as kW.
F – kilowatt
S – kilovatios
(elec) (meas). A unit of POWER consumption equal to the amount of power multiplied by the amount of time the power is used. A 100-watt light bulb burning for 10 hours uses one kilowatt-hour of power.
F – kilowattheure
S – kilovatio-hora
(gen). The ENERGY that a body possesses by virtue of its motion.
F – energie cinetique
S – energia cinetica
(wind). A measure of WIND SPEED equal to one nautical mile per hour. One knot equals 1.15 miles per hour.
(gen) (meas). An angular position north or south of the equator, measured in degrees along a meridian of a point.
F – latitude
S – latitud
(wind). The vertical edge of a WINDMILL BLADE that lies on the side towards which the blade moves. The opposite edge is called the TRAILING EDGE.
F – arete avant
S – borde anterior
(gen) (meas). A method for estimating the comparative costs of ALTERNATIVE ENERGY or other systems. Life-cycle costing takes into consideration such long-term costs as ENERGY consumption, maintenance, and repair.
F – evaluation du cycle de vie
S – calculo del coste de la vida util
(wind). The aerodynamic force that “pulls” the BLADES of a WINDMILL and causes them to rotate.
F – portance
S – impulsion
(wind) (meas). The ratio of LIFT forces to FLOW forces.
(alc). A sheet polymer or thin biological tissue capable of separating liquid solutions. Membranes are sometimes used in the ALCOHOL DISTILLATION process.
F – membrane
S – membrana
(wind). The wind or wind component along the local meridian.
F – vent meridien
S – viento meridional
(biocon). BACTERIA that thrive best at temperatures of 70-104 [degrees] F (21-40 [degrees] C) and are useful in producing BIOGAS.
F – bacteries mesophyliennes
S – bacteria mesofilica
(biocon). A process of converting to METHANE the carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide present in synthetic gas.
F – methanisation
S – metanacion
(biocon) (chem). An odorless, colorless gas (C[H.sub.4]), nearly insoluble in water, which burns with a pale, faintly luminous flame to produce water and carbon dioxide (or carbon monoxide if oxygen is deficient). (See also: MARSH GAS) (Syn: BIOGAS)
(alc). A light, VOLATILE, flammable, poisonous liquid ALCOHOL (C[H.sub.3]OH) formed in the DESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION of wood or made synthetically. METHANOL is used especially as a solvent, antifreeze, or DENATURANT for ETHANOL, and in the synthesis of other chemicals. It is also used increasingly as a fuel. (Syn: methyl alcohol or wood alcohol)
(sol). The arrangement of windows on a building or solar device along a given AXIS to face in a direction best suited to absorb SOLAR RADIATION. This is an essential element in planning PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING systems for homes and other buildings.
(alc). A type of STILL COLUMN or pipe that is used in ALCOHOL DISTILLATION. It is filled with such material as metal filings, plastic, or glass beads. Packed columns increase ALCOHOL yields by providing continuous redistillation of the ALCOHOL VAPOR as it moves up the still column.
(sol). A SOLAR ENERGY device shaped like a dish or bowl, with the characteristics of a PARABOLA. It focuses sunlight on a point or a very small area.
F – parabolique solaire
S – plato parabolico
(sol). A device with a large, shiny, curved surface that focuses SOLAR RADIATION on a specific point, such as a cooking vessel, for heating or boiling.
F – miroir parabolique
S – espejo parabolico
(gen). The law stating that pressure applied to a confined FLUID at any point is transmitted throughout the fluid in all directions. The pressure acts upon every part of the confining vessel at right angles to its interior surfaces, acting equally upon equal areas.
F – loi de Pascal
S – ley de Pascal
PASSIVE SOLAR DESIGN
(sol). An architectural design that makes use of the structural elements of a building to heat or cool spaces in the building.
F – systeme solaire passif
S – diseno solar pasivo
PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING
(sol). The SOLAR HEATING of a building by use of architectural design, without the aid of mechanical equipment.
F – chauffage solaire passif
S – calefaccion solar pasiva
(wind) (arc). A SAIL fitted with SHUTTERS that are controlled automatically.
(gen). Mechanical or electrical POWER generated by the use of a bicycle-gearing apparatus. Pedal power may be used for buffing, lathing, grinding grain or meat, operating a potter’s wheel, driving a small GENERATOR, turning a sharpening stone, operating a corn sheller, and other applications.
(hydr). An IMPULSE WATER TURBINE in which the pressure of the water supply is concentrated through a few stationary nozzles. The JETS of water strike the BUCKETS, which are mounted on the RUNNER. Pelton wheels usually are limited to installations with HEADS that exceed 500 feet, or about 160 meters. (Syn: Pelton turbine)
(chem) (meas). Potential hydrogen. The symbol that denotes a measurement of the effective hydrogen ion CONCENTRATION. On a scale of 0 to 14, 7 represents neutrality. Numbers less then 7 indicate increasing ACIDITY. Numbers greater than 7 indicate increasing ALKALINITY of a solution.
F – pH
S – pH
(sol) (meas). A device that measures the intensity of light.
F – photometre
S – fotometro
(sol). A number of PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES that are electrically connected in a series and/or in parallel so as to provide the desired POWER and voltage. The modules are mounted on a sturdy framework that generally faces the equator. The array may be tailored to the requirements of a particular application and location. Such an array is valuable because it can generate electricity from sunlight without the use of moving mechanical parts.
F – chapelet de photopiles
S – conjunto fotovoltaico
(sol). A SOLAR ENERGY device that changes light into electrical ENERGY. The cell is a small square or circular wafer made of treated SILICON or other semiconductor material.
(hydr). An OVERSHOT WATER WHEEL in which the trough carrying water to the wheel is modified to discharge onto the near side of the wheel, thus reversing the normal direction of rotation.
F – roue hydraulique a jet inverse
S – rueda hidraulica de engranaje
(heat). A KILN made from a hole that is dug in the ground.
F – four en terre
S – horno de foso
PLUG FLOW GENERATOR
(biocon) (impl). A BIOGAS DIGESTER with no mechanical agitation through which the SLURRY passes along in more or less discrete “plugs,” creating a cycle of “first in-first out.” The EFFLUENT is then theoretically composed only of older slurry. The plug flow design differs from traditional designs, in which all slurry is purposely mixed together in a single pit or tank.
(alc) (meas). A unit measurement of the strength of ALCOHOL. The proof is twice the percentage of the alcohol in the liquid. Alcohol that is 90 proof contains 45 percent alcohol. (See also: PROOF-GALLON)
F – degre en alcool
S – graduacion normal
(alc) (meas). A standard U.S. gallon of a mixture that is 50 percent ALCOHOL and 50 percent water (i.e., that is 100 proof). An alcohol/water mixture that contains a different ratio of each may be translated into proof-gallons by moving the decimal point of the proof two places to the left and multiplying by the total number of gallons of the mixture.
(meas). One quadrillion BTUs. It is expressed as either [10.sup.15] or 1,000,000,000,000,000 BTus. A quad is used to measure any large unit of energy such as wood, gasoline, coal, etc. For example, a quad can be used to describe the amount of THERMAL ENERGY that is potentially available from burning a certain acreage of trees in WOODSTOVES.
F – quad
S – cuad
(wind). The action of turning a WINDMILL broadside to the WIND.
(sol). Electromagnetic waves that directly transport ENERGY through space. Sunlight is a form of radiation.
F – rayonnement
S – radiacion
RATED POWER CAPACITY
(wind) (meas). The expected POWER output of a WIND MACHINE. It is equal to either the maximum power of the machine or to an output at some WIND SPEED less than the maximum speed, but at which GOVERNING controls start to reduce the power.
(biocon). Whichever stage in the ANAERIOBIC process that is slowest. Since each step in the digestion process requires the preceeding one to be completed before it can begin, the overall gas production rate is limited by the slowest step.
F – stage limitant la cadence
S – etapa de velocidad limitadora
(biocon). Fresh, undried, uncomposted EFFLUENT from a DIGESTER. Also residue in the same condition from the bottom of a digester.
F – boues brutes
S – cienos sin tratar
(wind). Standard WIND SPEED DISTRIBUTION that is useful in wind site analysis. It is a probability density function that allows one to model the wind speed distribution based on a single input parameter. (See also: WEIBULL DISTRIBUTION)
F – distribution de Rayleigh
S – distribucion de Rayleigh
(hydr). A WATER TURBINE that uses the mass or weight of water hitting the RUNNER as opposed to being driven by the velocity of the water.
F – turbine a reaction
S – turbina a reaccion
REACTION WATER WHEEL
(hydr). A WATER WHEEL that uses the mass or weight of water falling onto it rather than the FLOW.
F – roue hydraulique a reaction
S – rueda hidraulica reactiva
(hydr). A device that converts the potential ENERGY in a FLUID to mechanical energy by expanding the FLUID against a piston.
F – moteur a pistons
S – maquina alternativa
(wind). A type of water pump commonly used with WINDMILLS. Motion and pressure are applied to the water by a piston moving up and down in a CYLINDER. The piston is powered by the WINDMILL.
(sol) (meas).  The ability to reflect SOLAR RADIATION, which is possessed to some degree by all materials. It is called the ALBEDO in atmospheric references.  The ratio of RADIANT ENERGY reflected by a body to that falling upon it.
(constr) (meas). A rating of a substance’s thermal resistance to summer HEAT GAIN or winter heat loss. It is used as a measure of insulation efficiency. (Syn: R-VALUE) (See also: U-VALUE)
F – resistance thermique
S – valor de resistencia
(alc) (gen).  A vessel in which substances are subjected to heat for the purpose of DISTILLATION or DECOMPOSITION. A retort is distinguished from a STILL in that it is more often used for the treatment of solid or semisolid substances.  A closed container used in CHARCOAL production in which COMBUSTIBLE GASES are captured and made into liquids, generally through CONDENSATION.
(wind) (meas). The length of time during which low winds prevent a WINDMILL from reaching its CUT-IN SPEED or START-UP SPEED. The “down time” or time period when the wind is too low to enable a WINDMILL to reach its cut-in speed or start-up speed.
F – temps mort
S – tiempo de restablecimiento
(meas) (sol) (wind). The ratio of material forces to VISCOUS forces in any FLUID FLOW. The Reynolds’ number is determined through the following equation: (PVD)/U where:
P (rho) = density
V = velocity
D = length of flow distance
U (mu) = viscosity.
F – nombre de Reynolds
S – numero de Reynolds
RICE HUSK STOVE
(biocon). A stove designed to use rice husks as its primary fuel.
F – poele a paille de riz
S – estufa de cascaras de arroz
(wind) (impl). Collectively, all the ropes and cords used to support the mast of the WINDMILL, and to FURL or unfurl the SAILS.
F – haubanage
S – cordaje
(hydr). The right of a landowner to the water on or bordering his or her property, including the right to prevent diversion or misuse of upstream water.
F – droits de riverainete
S – derechos riberenos
(alc). A tube that penetrates a plate in a STILL COLUMN, allowing ALCOHOL VAPORS to move up the column. A perforated cap or cup is placed on top of each riser to distribute the vapor into the column section and to prevent water from dripping into the riser.
(sol). A passive air-conditioning system that circulates a building’s air through a bed of rocks that has cooled during the night or early morning.
F – refroidissement par lit de pierres, systeme de
S – sistema de enfriamiento con lecho de roca
(wind) (impl). A support mechanism that rotates on a shaft at one end while moving up and down at the other. It is used to convert the rotating motion of a WINDMILL to an up-and-down motion, usually for pumping.
(biocon). A stove designed to use sawdust as its primary fuel.
F – poele a sciure de bois
S – estufa de aserrin
(wind) (arc). A vertical, cast-iron wheel with wooden BLADES or scoops that lift water from one level to another. Scoop wheels usually are driven by WINDMILLS.
F – roue a godets
S – rueda de cangilones
(biocon).  Removing unwanted gases from BIOGAS or PRODUCER GAS.  The process of removing an undesirable, and usually corrosive, component or components from a COMBUSTIBLE GAS mixture. This is done by passing the mixture upwards and counter to a stream of liquid that is capable of selectively ADSORBING the undesirable components. Gases can also be scrubbed by passing them through iron filings.
F – epuration
S – proceso de lavado
(biocon). In BIOGAS DIGESTION, a mixture of coarse, fibrous material floating on the surface of the SLURRY. The accumulation of scum may inhibit METHANE production.
F – ecume
S – nata espumosa
SCUM CONTROL DEVICE
(biocon) (impl). A mechanism, usually some type of STIRRING device, that is used to break up the layer of SCUM that rises to the surface in a BIOGAS DIGESTER.
(heat). That heat, which, when added or subtracted, results only in a temperature change (as opposed to a chemical or other reaction).
F – chaleur sensible
S – calefaccion termosensible
SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE
(heat). A heat storage medium in which the addition or removal of heat results only in a temperature change (as opposed to a chemical or other reaction). The storage medium often consists of water or gravel.
F – stockage de chaleur sensible
S – almacenaje termosensible
(sol) (meas). A method for determining reductions in solar HEAT GAIN caused by certain kinds of GLAZING. It is determined by dividing the solar heat gain through a sheet of glazing under specific conditions by the solar gain through a single-color DOUBLE-GLAZING under the same conditions. The lower the number, the greater the reduction in solar heat gain.
F – coefficient de vitrage
S – coeficiente de sombra
(wind). Variations in horizontal WIND SPEED due to the distance of the wind from the ground. The higher the wind is above the ground, the faster it moves because of the reduced friction.
F – cisaillement
S – gradiente transversal de la velocidad del viento
(sol). A device that gathers and accumulates SOLAR RADIATION to produce heat. Nearly all solar collectors have a layer of GLAZING on top to trap heat that has passed into the collector. Beneath the glazing is a solar ABSORBER PLATE, which transfers heat to a HEAT TRANSFER MEDIUM. The medium may be air, water, an antifreeze solution, or other substance(s).
F – capteur solaire
S – colector de radiacion solar
SOLAR COLLECTOR CONNECTIONS
(sol). Inlets and outlets leading to and from SOLAR COLLECTORS and connecting the collectors with related apparatus. In the case of water tanks that run water through collectors, there will be an outlet near the bottom of the tank and an inlet near the top of the tank. Likewise, there will be an inlet near the bottom of the collector and an outlet near the top of the collector.
(sol). Specific greenhouse designs that take into account basic principles of PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING. Increasingly, solar greenhouses are being attached to dwellings. Excess heat from the greenhouse passes into the dwelling through air CONVECTION and THERMAL CONDUCTANCE from a mutual wall.
F – serre solaire
S – invernadero solar
(sol). The use of a SOLAR SYSTEM to raise the temperature in a room or a device.
(sol). A shallow body of salt water with a black or dark bottom. When incident SOLAR RADIATION penetrates the water, some of it is absorbed by the water. However, a large proportion of the radiation reaches the bottom of the pond. There it is absorbed, heating the bottom surface. The bottom surface in turn heats the water next to it, which then can be used as an ENERGY source through the use of HEAT EXCHANGERS. The pond’s salinity should increase with its depth.
F – bassin solaire
S – charca solar
(sol). The location of the sun in the sky during the EQUINOXES, based on the latitude of the observer. Solar position is determined by the value of the SOLAR ALTITUDE and the SOLAR AZIMUTH.
F – position du soleil
S – posicion solar
(sol). The rate at which SOLAR ENERGY falls on an area. The area is usually given in terms of the whole Earth.
F – puissance solaire
S – potencia solar
(sol). A pump that operates on SOLAR ENERGY, either by a PHOTOVOLTAIC process or by a thermal system in which a FLUID heated by the sun drives a TURBINE or piston that powers the pump.
F – pompe solaire
S – bomba solar
(sol). RADIANT ENERGY received from the sun, from both direct exposure and diffuse or reflected sunlight.
(sol) (meas). A circular transparency, similar to a map, that is used to determine solar positions and calculate shading.
F – dispositif de selection de l’emplacement solaire
S – selector del emplazamiento solar
SOLAR SPACE HEATER
(sol). A SOLAR HEATING system that heats FLUID on a black metal surface that is under GLAZING. The heated fluid may be circulated during the day and stored at night.
F – appareil de chauffage solaire individuel
S – calentador espacial solar
(sol). The total distribution of electromagnetic RADIATION emitted from the sun. It is usually listed minus those wavelengths that are absorbed by the atmosphere. On Earth, this amounts to about 420 trillion KILOWATT HOURS of SOLAR POWER annually.
(impl). Screening, steel wool, or other porous substance(s) that is placed in the distribution pipes from a BIOGAS DIGESTER or PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR. They prevent a spark or flame from passing back up the pipe and causing an explosion.
(gen). The ratio of the weight of a given volume of a substance to an equal volume of air or water at a given temperature and pressure. The specific gravity, which may be measured by a HYDROMETER, indicates the CONCENTRATION of a substance in a solution. (See also: PROOF).
F – densite
S – gravedad especifica
(hydr) (meas). The speed at which a given type of RUNNER in a TURBINE would operate if it were reduced proportionately in size to produce one HORSE-POWER under a one-foot (30.48 centimeter) HEAD. This speed or velocity is expressed in revolutions per minute. It is used to determine the proper type of turbine to install at a HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT under given conditions.
(constr). A CHIMNEY or other passageway designed to vent smoke from a stove, oven, furnace, etc.
F – corps de cheminee
S – canon
(heat). The impulse of a heated gas to rise through a vertical passage, such as a CHIMNEY.
F – effet de cheminee
S – efecto de humero
(heat). Gases resulting from combustion, which pass up a CHIMNEY.
F – gaz de cheminee
S – gases de la chimenea
(sol). The condition that may be reached in a SOLAR COLLECTOR when the sun is shining on the device and no FLUID is flowing through it. The resulting high temperatures may damage the COLLECTOR.
F – stagnation
S – estancacion
(alc) (chem). A white, tasteless, solid CARBOHYDRATE ([C.sub.6][H.sub.10][O.sub.5]). Starch is a major component of many agricultural crops, such as potatoes, grains, etc., that are used to produce GLUCOSE.
F – appareil stationnaire d’entrainement par pedales
S – unidad de rendimiento del pedal inmovil
(geo) (auto). An engine in which the mechanical force of steam is used as a motive POWER to drive machinery, etc.
F – moteur A vapeur
S – motor de vapor de agua
(geo). Superheated steam that is used as an ENERGY source. Steam gas is usually obtained from GEOTHERMAL sources.
F – vapeur surchauffee
S – gas de agua
(gen) (geo). A TURBINE that is driven by expanding steam or gas rather then by the velocity or weight of water.
F – turbine a vapeur
S – turbina de vapor
(gen) (alc).  An apparatus for DISTILLATION that consists primarily of a closed vessel in which the solution to be distilled is heated. It also includes mechanisms to condense the vapor that is produced.  An ALCOHOL distillation unit that consists of a container to heat MASH, a DISTILLATION COLUMN to separate the water from the alcohol, and a CONDENSER to convert ALCOHOL VAPORS into liquid.
(auto). An external combustion engine in which air is alternately heated and cooled to drive a piston up and down. Hydrogen is used instead of air in some newer models. The Stirling engine may in some cases be nonpolluting and more efficient than the internal combustion engine.
(gen). The total amount of ENERGY that a system is capable of holding for use at a later time. (See also: ENERGY STORAGE)
F – capacite de stockage
S – capacidad de almacenado
(sol). In SOLAR HEATING, temperature variations that occur in a substance or an area. The highest temperatures are found higher up and cooler temperatures are found lower down.
F – stratification
S – estratificacion
(wind) (arc). The mechanism used with PATENT SAILS to apply pressure to SHUTTERS. It consists of a striking rod that passes through the length of the WIND SHAFT. The rod is operated by an endless chain upon which weights are hung. The number of weights is determined by the force of the wind.
(hydr). An underwater obstruction that diverts water into a CHANNEL.
F – barrage immerge
S – vertedero sumergido
(bio) (biocon).  The particular FEEDSTOCK component that is used by bacteria to promote their growth and metabolism. The component often is one particular compound.  ORGANIC MATTER that is used to generate METHANE in a BIOGAS DIGESTER. (See: SLURRY)
F – substrat
S – subestrato
(alc) (chem). A FERMENTABLE SUGAR ([C.sub.12][H.sub.22][O.sub.11]) that is commonly found in nature.
F – sucrose
S – sucrosa
(wind) (meas). A device that measures WIND VELOCITY according to the degree of exhaust caused when the wind is blown through or across a tube.
(wind) (meas). The area in a plane that is perpendicular to the wind through which a WINDMILL‘s BLADES pass. The area is defined by the circumference of the circle formed by the rotating blades, and is one factor in determining the amount of WIND POWER available from the wind.
F – zone balayee
S – area barrida
(wind) (arc). A pivoting bearing that is sometimes used to support the WIND SHAFT of a WINDMILL.
F – palier pivotant
S – cojinete pivotante
(wind) (arc). The amount that a SAILCLOTH is rolled up or REEFED to reduce its exposure to the wind. This term refers to the pointed end on a reefed SAIL. (See also: REEFING)
(wind). A flat piece of sheet metal that is attached to the extension of the WINDSHAFT of a WINDMILL. The plane of the tail is normally perpendicular to the wind so the tail may intercept changes in wind direction and turn the ROTOR around to face the wind. (Syn: vane)
F – empennage
S – punta del aspa
(wind) (arc). The projecting SPAR used to turn a WINDMILL that is not equipped with automatic WINDING gear.
F – barre de queue
S – saliente del aspa
(hydr). The discharging CHANNEL of a HYDROPOWER system. It is that section of a RACE that is downstream of a hydropower device.
F – bief d’aval
S – canal de descarga
(hydr). Water passing back into a discharging CHANNEL after being applied to a HYDROPOWER device.
F – eau d’aval
S – agua de descarga
(hydr) (meas). The depth of the TAILWATER as measured at a reference point on its surface.
F – niveau de l’eau d’aval
S – nivel de la descarga
(wind). The condition when a WINDMILL is caught by a sudden change in wind direction, which exerts pressure on the wrong side of the SAIL assembly.
F – a vent arriere
S – con viento de cola
(gen). Having to do with the use or production of heat. Also any reaction caused by heat.
F – thermique
S – termico
(heat) (meas). The total amount of BTUs that a square foot (929 square centimenters) of a surface will admit in one hour.
(heat) (meas). The amount of heat that will pass through a given amount of material in a given amount of time, and with a unit temperature difference maintained between the surfaces of the material under uniform and steady conditions.
F – conductance thermique
S – termoconductancia
(heat). Heat transfer by direct contact from one substance to another of a lower temperature.
F – transmission de chaleur
S – termotransmision
(heat) (meas). The ability of a material to conduct heat. It is commonly measured in units of THERMAL CONDUCTANCE.
F – conductivite thermique
S – termoconductibilidad
(heat) (meas). A percentage that indicates the available heat that is converted to useful purposes. Thermal efficiency is used to evaluate wood-conserving stoves and numerous other devices.
(meas). The time required for the temperature of an area to reach that of an adjacent area, either by heating or cooling. For example, the time required for indoor air temperature to reach the cooler outside air temperature when there is no additional heat added to the house; or the time required for the inside surface of a TROMBE WALL to reach the temperature of the outside surface, which is exposed to the sun.
(wind). Winds that are caused by the heating of the ground by SOLAR RADIATION.
F – vents thermiques
S – vientos termicos
(meas) (impl). A device used to measure temperature. It is based on the principle that an electrical current is produced when two dissimilar wires are joined together and the junction is heated. Thermocouples are often used to measure temperatures at different levels in BIOGAS DIGESTERS, WOOD STOVES, KILNS, or other devices where use of a conventional thermometer would be difficult.
F – thermocouple
S – termopar
(biocon). BACTERIA that grow best in a temperature range between 122-131 [degrees] F (50-55 [degrees] C).
(wind) (meas). The speed of the outer end or tip of a BLADE of a WINDMILL ROTOR. This speed may be faster than the rotation rate of the WIND SHAFT, and may be faster or slower than the actual WIND SPEED.
(bio) (biocon). A material that inhibits the growth and metabolism of or kills micro-organisms, often by interfering with the normal chemical or biochemical processes. A toxin may cause a BIOGAS DIGESTER to stop producing gas.
(sol). A substance that carries heat From a SOLAR COLLECTOR to a storage area or from a storage area to be warmed in a collector. Transfer mediums are usually either air, water, or antifreeze solutions.
F – agent de transfert
S – medio de transferencia
(sol) (meas). The ratio of the RADIANT ENERGY transmitted through a substance to the total radiant energy falling on its surface. Transmittance is always affected by the thickness and composition of the substance, as well as by the INCIDENT ANGLE.
F – facteur de transmission
S – transmision
(hydr). A protective “screen” made of vertical bars that catches leaves, grass, and debris, keeping clear the intake of a HYDROPOWER device.
(constr) (heat) (sol). A masonry wall located directly inside windows that face the equator. The wall functions simultaneously as a structural element of the building and as a SOLAR COLLECTOR and HEAT STORAGE unit. (See also: THERMAL MASS)
F – mur de trombe
S – pared de trombe
(impl) (wind). A pin or pivot that is mounted on BEARINGS to rotate or turn something. It usually is used as a WINDMILL component. (See also: TURNTABLE)
(gen). A device that converts the ENERGY in a stream of FLUID into mechanical energy. By passing the stream through a system of fixed and/or moving BLADES, a drive shaft is rotated.
F – turbine
S – turbina
(hydr). The part of a WATER TURBINE that is attached to a drive shaft, and which holds the BLADES or CUPS that cause the wheel to rotate when struck by a stream of steam or water. The wheel rotates the shaft to produce mechanical or electrical POWER. (Syn: RUNNER)
(prod) (gen).  Referring to a PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR in which the air-gas mixture flows upward to the engine.  Any cooking or heating device (e.g., a KILN) in which air for CONVECTION or combustion flows upward through the device.
(wind).  On the same side as the direction from which the wind is blowing (i.e. , in the path of the oncoming wind).  A type of WINDMILL in which the ROTOR remains between the oncoming wind and the TOWER.
F – vent de proue
S – viento contrario
(heat). Automotive or other lubrication oil, which is “used up” or no longer useful for its original purpose. If mixed with water at a ratio of five to one, and then dripped onto a heated metal sheet, used oil will burst into flames. This makes it useful as a fuel. (Syn: waste oil)
F – huile epuisee
S – aceite usado
USEFUL ENERGY GAIN
(sol). The ENERGY absorbed by a SOLAR COLLECTOR that is not lost to the surrounding atmosphere and which may be used for space or water heating.
F – gain energetique utile
S – ganancia de energia util
USEFUL SOLAR HEAT
(sol). Heat delivered by a SOLAR COLLECTOR that can be applied for cooking, heating, or other purposes.
F – chaleur solaire utile
S – calor solar util
USEFUL WATER CAPACITY
(hydr) (meas). The volume of water that a reservoir can hold and usefully exploit, and which lies between the lowest and highest levels normally contained in the reservoir.
F – capacite utile en eau
S – capacidad aprovechable de agua
(heat) (meas). The amount of heat that FLOWS in or out of a substance under constant conditions, in one hour, when there is a one degree difference in temperature between the air inside and outside the building. U-value is the inverse of RESISTANCE-VALUE.
(sol). Shallow plastic bags that are filled with water and placed on roofs of homes or buildings. In cooler climates, the bags collect SOLAR ENERGY during the day, and radiate heat to the building during the day and radiate this heat to the sky at night, thus cooling the building. In warmer climates, panels are placed over the bags during the day and removed at night so the bags can draw off heat from the building and keep it cool.
F – lit d’eau
S – lecho de agua
(hydr). A steep CHANNEL by which water descends in force. Water chutes are used to create or increase the HEAD for a HYDROPOWER system.
F – chute d’eau
S – caida de agua
(biocon). A type of water plant with a high carbon content, which makes it very useful as FEEDSTOCK for BIOGAS production.
F – eichornia
S – jacinto de agua
(auto) (prod). A casing or compartment containing water that is placed around all or part of a device to keep it cool, as around the cylinders or cylinder head of an internal combustion engine.
(biocon). The part of a GASHOLDER designed to prevent the METHANE from mixing with air and becoming potentially explosive. It generally is created by submerging a portion of the holder in water.
F – joint hydraulique
S – junta hidraulica
(hydr).  the divide or crestline dividing two drainage areas.  The area draining into a river, stream etc.
F –  ligne de partage des eaux;  bassin hydrographique
S – divisoria de aguas
(hydr). A device that converts the ENERGY of falling water into rotating mechanical energy. Water turbines are usually smaller than WATER WHEELS and operate at the higher speeds required to generate electricity.
F – turbine hydraulique
S – turbina hidraulica
(hydr). A wheel with BUCKETS or BLADES that allow it to be turned by the weight or velocity of falling water or by water moving underneath it.
F – roue hydraulique
S – rueda hidraulica
(elec) (meas). The unit rate at which work is done in an electrical circuit. One watt equals one JOULE of work per second.
F – watt
S – vatio
(ocean). The production of electricity by harnessing ocean wave movements through the use of specialized TURBINES or other devices.
F – energie des vagues
S – energia de las olas
(wind) (arc). SAILS with variable pitch from the inner to the outer edge.
F – ailes a airage
S – velas inclinadas
(gen). Narrow strips of rubber, felt, metal or other material that are used to conserve ENERGY by preventing air INFILTRATION around doors or windows.
(wind) (meas). A probability density function that allows one to model the WIND SPEED DISTRIBUTION for a given site, based on certain input parameters. A mathematical application of the Weibull probability density function gives the wind speed distribution. The Weibull distribution is a two-parameter function, whereas the RAYLEIGH DISTRIBUTION is a simplified Weibull that only uses one parameter. (See also: RAYLEIGH DISTRIBUTION)
F – distribution de Weibull
S – distribucion de Weibull
(hydr). An obstruction placed across a stream to divert the water to make it FLOW through a desired CHANNEL, which may be a notch or opening in the weir itself. A weir also is that part of a dam, embankment, CANAL, etc. that contains gates, and over which surplus water flows. A calibrated rod can be placed before the opening in a weir to measure flow. Weirs are sometimes set up exclusively as flow-measuring devices. (Syn: waterweir)
F – deversoir
S – presa de aforo
(meas). A measure of the relative humidity in a room. It is taken by a special thermometer whose bulb is kept wet.
(geo). Underground water that is hotter than the boiling point, but which remains liquid because of high surrounding pressures. Reservoirs of this superheated water may be tapped, producing a mixture of water and steam that flows to the surface and which may provide power for a TURBINE or other machinery.
(wind) (arc). The principal longitudinal frame for the individual WINDMILL SAIL. It is strapped and bolted to the face of the BLADE.
F – bras 
S – varillaje
(wind). A device or structure that is used to concentrate a wind stream.
F – concentrateur du vent
S – concentrador de viento
(wind). The forward course along which the wind is blowing.
F – direction du vent
S – direccion del viento
WIND ELECTRIC SYSTEM
(wind). A system in which a WINDMILL is used to generate electricity. A windmill can either be used with an ALTERNATOR or DYNAMO to provide electricity, which is either stored in batteries or used directly to run appliances.
F – electricite eolienne, systeme de
S – sistema electrogeno eolico
(wind). ENERGY that is tapped from the natural movement of the air. Wind energy is considered a form of SOLAR ENERGY because wind is caused by variations in the amount of heat that the sun sends to different parts of the earth. It may be converted into electrical or mechanical POWER through the use of a WIND MACHINE.
F – energie du vent
S – energia eolica
WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM
(wind). The conversion of WIND ENERGY into electrical, mechanical, or thermal energy through the use of WIND MACHINES. Commonly abbreviated as W.E.C.S. or WECS.
(wind). A type of WINDMILL that extracts ENERGY from the wind to produce electricity by driving a GENERATOR. It generally has two or three narrow BLADES that turn at a high speed, often using gearing to multiply the number of revolutions per minute up to a range required by the generator.
F – eolienne generatrice
S – generador eolico
(wind) (arc). The action of turning the WINDMILL CAP into the WIND. This is done either automatically or manually. (Pronounced to rhyme with finding.)
F – virer
S – venteamiento
WIND LOAD RATING
(wind) (meas). A specification used to indicate the resistance of a WINDMILL TOWER to the force of the wind.
F – puissance eolienne nominale
S – clasificador de la carga eolica
(wind). Any of several types of wind-driven devices that are used to extract useful POWER from the wind.
(wind). In a strictly technical sense, only those wind-powered MACHINES that drive MILLS to grind grain. However, the term is generally used to describe WIND MACHINES of all kinds. A windmill is powered by wind pressure, and usually has a slowly turning ROTOR with two or more BLADES attached to it. The blades are turned by the wind, thus rotating the rotor and the WIND SHAFT. In this way, WIND ENERGY is converted to mechanical energy. Some typical windmill applications include water pumping, milling or threshing, and electricity generation.
F – moulin a vent, eolienne
S – molino de viento
(wind) (meas). Power available from the wind that can be used by various types of WIND MACHINES. It can be expressed as: P = E(.5)[[[#DAV|DAV]].sup.3], where:
(wind) (meas). A two-dimensional graph that shows monthly or yearly mean WIND SPEEDS as well as a distribution of wind speeds. It usually indicates the speed and the percentage of time that the wind blows from eight to 16 different directions.
(wind) (meas). A two-dimensional graph that shows the total time or the percentage of time that the wind blows at each WIND SPEED at a particular location. It differs from a WIND ROSE in that it can give a grand total of wind speeds, regardless of their directions.
(wind) (meas). The speed of air movement measured in miles per hour or meters per second. The amount of POWER available from the wind depends in part on the WIND SPEED or velocity. It is a peculiarity of WIND POWER that the ENERGY available increases as the cube of the wind velocity. Wind velocity may be measured by an ANEMOMETER.
(biocon). A stove that uses wood and most wood residues as fuel.
F – poele a bois
S – estufa de lena
(alc) (impl) (wind) (arc).  A type of CONDENSER used in ALCOHOL STILLS. It is a coiled metal tube that leads from the still to a container holding cool water. It increases the rate of CONDENSATION and therefore the purity of the alcohol produced.  A cylindrical gear that supports a helical thread. It frequently is used in WINDMILL WINDING gears.
F –  serpentin;  vis sans fin
S – tornillo sin fin
(alc). The liquid portion of MASH that has not yet been inoculated with YEAST. It is a brewing term that describes the mash when it is between the BREWING MASH stage and the FERMENTATION period.
(alc) (bio). A single-celled micro-organism that can change simple sugars into ETHANOL and carbon dioxide by FERMENTATION. Yeasts are one type of FUNGI.
F – levure
S – levadura
(ani) (impl). A contrivance that joins together a pair of draft animals, especially oxen, and which generally consists of a crosspiece with bow-shaped pieces that fit over the shoulders of the animals.